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قائمة أنواع الطيور في السودان Species list for Sudan

الكاتب: موسوعة النيل Nilopedia الرقم المرجعي: AA-00442 مشاهدات: 3493 أنشيء: 2014-02-14 00:00 آخر تحديث: 2016-02-24 16:41 0 التقدير/ الأصوات

Friday, 14 February 2014

Ever since the split from South Sudan in 2011 I have been wanting to make a definitive list of the birds of The Republic of the Sudan (i.e. the north). It has taken me so long to do so, that a couple of other people have beaten me to it, namely the African Bird Club (africanbirdclub.org/countries/) and Avibase (avibase.bsc-eoc.org/). However, although both make an excellent attempt to sort out the new lists from the list for the old boundaries of Sudan, it is evident that there are some errors and many species that warrant further discussion. This is particularly the case for species which were only previously reported from the border areas.


Nikolaus' 'Distribution Atlas of Sudan's Birds with Notes on Habitat and Status' (1987) is far and away the leading source for making a Sudan bird list. For most species there is a map of Sudan divided into one degree squares onto which records are plotted, sometimes including breeding data and the subspecies involved (see example below). Given the relative lack of information on the birds of Sudan, this is an amazing piece of work. However, many of his one degree squares overlap the Sudan and South Sudan border, which, thankfully, Nikolaus included on his 1987 map. There is usually no indication on which side of the border a record was made. In such cases, unless the original records of Nikolaus can be obtained, such species cannot justifiably be included as records for Sudan. With this is mind, the ABC list for Sudan omits most of these records. However, Avibase generally does not omit these records.

An example of an entry in Nikolaus' Atlas (1987)

In addition to this, and somewhat surprisingly, Nikolaus also included data from neighbouring countries where a record fell within a one degree square that straddled the border. He rarely discusses this in his comments, making it impossible to know whether a record relates to Sudan or the neighbouring country. For example, the Red-headed Lovebird distribution above mentions that the nominate form may occur along the Ethiopian border, so presumably the records marked 2 are actually records from Ethiopia (the 1 s and 2s usually represent the different subspecies). In this case it is relatively easy to interpret, but the single record from north Sudan lies on the border with Chad. It is not possible to tell whether or not it is actually meant to be a record from Darfur in Sudan. It seems that the makers of the ABC and Avibase lists were unaware of this arrangement and have tended to include these border species. As with the border records with South Sudan, it seems to me that these records cannot be included in the Sudan list unless specific details of locations can be obtained.

There are many species included in Nikolaus that are not included in the ABC list. Some may involve a single old record that now appears to be suspect, but others have several records including specimens, or records made by Nikolaus. In these cases it would be good to assess the records and discuss what criteria were used for inclusion or exclusion from the list.

The ABC list for Sudan currently has 594 species. I have found 669 potential species, if all possible candidates from the various lists are included (not counting splits, so this is based only on species recognised in the ABC list for Africa). Of these, 556 are universally accepted by all (i.e. Nikolaus, ABC, and Avibase), while another 113 are debatable (I include in this category my own recent records of species new for Sudan). Below is a list of these 113 species, with notes for each. My suggestions on the right are categorised 1. Should probably be on the ABC list for Sudan unless other evidence is available; 2. Should probably not be on the ABC list for Sudan unless other evidence is available; 3. further discussion is required to explain why a species has been included or excluded from the list (usually, this refers to why the record in Nikolaus is now acceptable, or unacceptable).

If anyone can shed light on any reasons why the species listed below should/should not be included in the Sudan list I would like to hear from them. I have very poor access to published literature, so I would be very interested in hearing about publications that shed light on some of these species. I would also be interested in unpublished sightings that might clarify some of the species, such as from the border regions. I would also be very interested in getting access to the original material of Nikolaus, if it is still available somewhere.

I apologise for my inability to show tables properly on this blog and for my inability to add my original Excel files. I have uploaded my Excel file to Birdforum (www.birdforum.net/), so the whole list can be accessed more easily.



Species needing clarificationNotesSuggestion Tom Jenner
Leach's Storm-petrel Oceanodroma leucorhoa Not in ABC, but in Avibase. Old record in Nikolaus.
3
Black-necked Grebe Podiceps nigricollis Not in ABC, but in Avibase. At least 2 records in Nikolaus, including specimen (Bowen).
3
Red-billed Tropicbird Phaethon aethereus Not in ABC, but in Avibase. Recent records in Nikolaus.
3
Shoebill Balaeniceps rex Border SS Not in ABC or Avibase
2
Greater White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons Not in recent ABC list or Avibase, but 3 records in Nikolaus include skin (Bowen) and one sightling by Nikolaus
3
Common Shelduck Tadorna tadorna Not in recent ABC list, but in Avibase. Two separate records in Nikolaus.
3
Crested Honey BuzzardRecent record with photo Tom Jenner (confirmed by Bill Clarke and Dick Forsman)
1
Bat Hawk Macheiramphus alcinus Border SS, included in ABC and Avibase
2
Red Kite Milvus milvus Not in ABC, but in Avibase. Several records in Nikolaus.
3
Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus Not in ABC, but in Avibase. One old record in Nikolaus.
3
Beaudouin's Snake-Eagle Circaetus beaudouiniIncluded as split in ABC all Africa list, but not on ABC Sudan list. In Nikolaus and Avibase. Recent photos Tom Jenner
1
Black-chested Snake-Eagle Circaetus pectoralisIncluded as split in ABC all Africa list, but not on ABC Sudan list. In Nikolaus and Avibase
3
Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus Not in ABC, but in Avibase. At least 2 records in Nikolaus.
3
Little Sparrowhawk Accipiter minullus Border with Ethiopia and S Sudan
2
Black Sparrowhawk Accipiter melanoleucus Border with Ethiopia
2
Lizard Buzzard Kaupifalco monogrammicus Border with Ethiopia and S Sudan
2
Mountain Buzzard Buteo oreophilusNo records in Nikolaus, but both ABC and Avibase include it
3
Common Buzzard Buteo buteo No records in ABC (must be an error), but in Avibase and Nikolaus
1
Eastern Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca Not in ABC, but in Avibase. Nikolaus has 4 records, including skins
3
Merlin Falco columbarius Not in ABC, but in Avibase. Nikolaus has 2 records, Bowen mentions skin
3
Schlegel's Francolin Francolinus schlegeliiNot in ABC or Nikolaus, but included in Avibase
2
Scaly Francolin Francolinus squamatus Not in ABC, but in Avibase. Nikolaus says that Jebel Marra record needs confirmation
2
Heuglin's Francolin Francolinus icterorhynchus Border SS Not in ABC, but in Avibase
2
Crested Coot Fulica cristataRecent breeding records with photos. Tom Jenner, Marwa Taha
1
Macqueen's Bustard Chlamydotis macqueeni Not in ABC, but in Avibase. Nikolaus has 1 record from Sanganeb lighthouse
3
Rock Pratincole Glareola nuchalis Not in ABC, but in Avibase. Nikolaus has 2 records. Type specimen collected at Berber near Nile Fifth cataract Gray 1849. However, although Berber is at the fifth cataract, the original label says it is the White Nile, which is incorrect for this location. The White Nile flows as far north as Khartoum. Further south near Juba in South Sudan the Rock Pratincole is relatively common on the White Nile
3
Northern Lapwing Vanellus vanellus Not in ABC, but in Avibase. Nikolaus has at least 3 records
3
Red Knot Calidris canutus Not in ABC, but in Avibase. Nikolaus has 2 records
3
Arctic Skua Stercorarius parasiticus Not in ABC list, but in Avibase list. No records in Nikolaus
2
Pomarine Skua Stercorarius pomarinusNot in ABC list, but in Avibase list. No records in Nikolaus
2
Mediterranean Gull Larus melanocephalus Not in ABC, but in Avibase. Nikolaus has 2 records, one of which was his own
3
Little Gull Larus minutus Not in ABC, but in Avibase. Nikolaus has 2 records, one of 20 birds, all same observer
3
Herring Gull Larus argentatus Heuglin's Gull in Nikolaus, specimens taken. But record pre-dates recent work on Herring Gull complex. Possibly Yellow-legged Gull.
3
Yellow-legged Gull Larus cachinnansVarious recent records with photos - Tom Jenner
1
Royal Tern Sterna maxima In Avibase, but not in ABC list. No records in Nikolaus
2
Arctic Tern Sterna paradisaea Not in ABC list, but in Avibase list. Nikolaus reported a bird ringed in Khartoum.
3
Sooty Tern Sterna fuscata Not in ABC list, but in Avibase list. Nikolaus own record from Red Sea.
3
Little TernNot in ABC, but in Avibase. Tom Jenner recent photos. Inland records in Nikolaus (before split from Saunders) not specifically identified previously, but  probably this species.
1
Black Tern Chlidonias niger Not in ABC, but in Avibase. No records in Nikolaus - sight records not considered acceptable
2
Blue-spotted Wood Dove Turtur afer Border SS Not in ABC, but in Avibase
2
Emerald-spotted Wood Dove Turtur chalcospilos Border with Ethiopia
2
Red-headed Lovebird Agapornis pullarius Border with Chad. Not in ABC, but in Avibase.
2
White-crested Turaco Tauraco leucolophus Border SS Not in ABC, but in Avibase
2
White-cheeked Turaco Tauraco leucotis Border with Ethiopia. In ABC and Avibase.
2
African Emerald Cuckoo Chrysococcyx cupreus Border with Ethiopia. In ABC and Avibase.
2
Marsh Owl Asio capensis Border SS. Not in ABC but in Avibase.
2
Swamp Nightjar Caprimulgus natalensis Border SS. Not in ABC but in Avibase.
2
Freckled Nightjar Caprimulgus tristigma Border with Ethiopia. In ABC and Avibase.
2
Rufous-cheeked Nightjar Caprimulgus rufigena Nikolaus mentions records from Darfur (Lynes 1924 to 1925). Not in ABC or Avibase.
3
Blue-breasted Bee-eater Merops variegatus Border with Eritrea. In ABC and Avibase.
2
Black-billed Wood-hoopoe Phoeniculus somaliensis Nikolaus mentions one record from Ethiopian border (which side?)
3
Eastern Yellow-billed Hornbill Tockus flavirostris Border with Ethiopia or Eritrea. In ABC and Avibase.
2
Black-throated Barbet Tricholaema melanocephala Border with Eritrea. In ABC and Avibase.
2
White-headed Barbet Lybius leucocephalus Border SS. Not in ABC but in Avibase.
2
Red-winged Lark Mirafra hypermetra Nikolaus lumps Rufous-naped and Red-winged and includes only ssp kurrae in N. Sudan in Darfur, i.e Rufous-naped, not red-winged. In ABC and Avibase.
3
Black Saw-wing Psalidoprocne pristoptera Border SS. Not in ABC or Avibase. 
2
Yellow-throated Longclaw Macronyx croceus Border SS. Not in ABC but in Avibase.
2
Hypocolius Hypocolius ampelinus Nikolaus mentions several records including his own. Not in ABC (though full ABC list includes it as a vagrant in Sudan on Red Sea coast), but in Avibase.
1
Heuglin's Wheatear Oenanthe heuglini Not in ABC. Presumably an oversight as it is a recognised species in ABC list and has many sightings in Sudan.
1
Ring Ouzel Turdus torquatus Not in ABC, but in Avibase. Nikolaus has 2 records, one was a Khartoum specimen.
3
Little Rush Warbler Bradypterus baboecala Border SS. Not in ABC but in Avibase.
2
Fan-tailed Grassbird Schoenicola brevirostris Border SS. Not in ABC but in Avibase.
2
Greater Swamp Warbler Acrocephalus rufescens Border SS. Not in ABC but in Avibase.
2
Upcher's Warbler Hippolais languida Not in ABC, but in Avibase. Nikolaus has 2 records, including specimens. Must be an expected species in the country.
1
Orphean Warbler Sylvia hortensisABC has 'Western' Orphean Warbler, which appears to be an error. All Nikolaus records are hortensis, as are mine (Tom Jenner) which include photos. ABC 2010 does not split Eastern and Western into species, so ABC Sudan list should just have 'Orphean' Warbler.
1
Yellow-bellied Hyliota Hyliota flavigaster Border with Ethiopia
2
Whistling Cisticola Cisticola lateralis Border SS. Not in ABC but in Avibase.
2
Croaking Cisticola Cisticola natalensis Border with Ethiopia and SS
2
Short-winged Cisticola Cisticola brachypterus Border SS. Not in ABC but in Avibase.
2
Black-backed Cisticola Cisticola eximius Border SS. In both ABC and Avibase.
2
Swamp Flycatcher Muscicapa aquatica Border SS. Not in ABC but in Avibase.
2
African Dusky Flycatcher Muscicapa adustaNot in ABC, or in Nikolaus, but in Avibase. Presumably an error.
2
Grey Tit-Flycatcher Myioparus plumbeus Border SS. Not in ABC but in Avibase.
2
European Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca Nikolaus gives 2 birds he netted as the only definate records. Not in ABC.
3
Collared Flycatcher Ficedula albicollis Not in ABC, but in Avibase. Nikolaus has 2 records (north Sudan and Darfur)
3
Red-breasted Flycatcher Ficedula parva Not in ABC, but in Avibase. Nikolaus has 1 record (his own, from Erkowit 1980)
3
White-rumped Babbler Turdoides leucopygia Border with Ethiopia. In ABC and Avibase.
2
White-winged Black Tit Parus leucomelas Not in ABC, but in Avibase. Presumably an oversight as it is a recognised species in ABC list and has many sightings in Sudan.
1
Yellow Penduline Tit Anthoscopus parvulus Border SS. In both ABC and Avibase.
2
Mouse-coloured Penduline Tit Anthoscopus musculus Not in ABC or Avibase. Nikolaus has 1 record
3
Western Violet-backed Sunbird Anthreptes longuemarei Border SS. Not in ABC but in Avibase.
2
Green-headed Sunbird Cyanomitra verticalis Border SS. Not in ABC but in Avibase.
2
Red-chested Sunbird Cinnyris erythrocercus Border SS. Not in ABC but in Avibase.
2
Common Fiscal Lanius collaris Border with Ethiopia
2
Tropical Boubou Laniarius aethiopicus Border with Ethiopia and Eritrea. In ABC and Avibase
2
Velvet-mantled Drongo Dicrurus modestusNot in Nikolaus, but it ABC and Avibase. This is West African species that does not appear to have a range close to Sudan.
2
Cape Crow Corvus capensis Border SS. In both ABC and Avibase.
2
Thick-billed Raven Corvus crassirostris Not in ABC or Avibase. Nikolaus has 2 records from N. Sudan (Gallabat and Famaka)
3
Red-winged Starling Onychognathus morio In ABC and Avibase. Border SS - Darfur records may relate to Neumann's
3
Neumann's Starling Onychognathus neumanni In ABC and Avibase. Nikolaus presumably includes in Red-winged as Darfur records, but doesn't elaborate or mention subsp. Is there other evidence? 
3
White-billed Starling Onychognathus albirostris Not in ABC or Avibase. Nikolaus says it needs confirmation
2
Red-billed Oxpecker Buphagus erythrorhynchus Border with Ethiopia. In ABC and Avibase.
2
Parrot-billed Sparrow Passer gongonensisIn ABC but not in Avibase. Nikolaus has no Sudan records, only one from the very southern border of South Sudan. Seems unlikely given known range.
2
Shelley's Rufous Sparrow Passer shelleyiIn ABC but not in Avibase. Nikolaus has no Sudan records, only some from the southern half of South Sudan. Seems unlikely given known range.
2
Baglafecht Weaver Ploceus baglafecht Border with Ethiopia. In ABC and Avibase.
2
Vitelline Masked Weaver Ploceus vitellinus Missing from ABC list. Presumably an error, as it is a common breeder.
1
Black-headed Weaver Ploceus melanocephalus Border with Ethiopia. In ABC and Avibase.
2
Chestnut Weaver Ploceus rubiginosus Border with Ethiopia. In ABC and Avibase.
2
Grosbeak Weaver Amblyospiza albifrons Border SS (just). Not in ABC or Avibase.
2
Common Waxbill Estrilda astrild Border SS (just). Not in ABC or Avibase.
2
Brown Twinspot Clytospiza monteiri Border SS. Not in ABC or Avibase.
2
Red-billed Pytilia Pytilia lineata Border with Ethiopia
2
Bar-breasted Firefinch Lagonosticta rufopicta Border SS. Not in ABC but in Avibase.
2
Black-bellied Firefinch Lagonosticta rara Border SS. Not in ABC but in Avibase.
2
Bronze Mannikin Lonchura cucullata Border with Ethiopia. In ABC and Avibase.
2
Eastern Paradise Whydah Vidua paradisaea Not in ABC, but in Avibase. Presumably an oversight as it is a recognised species in ABC list, plus Nikolaus has many sightings in Sudan that match up well with the known distribution in neighbouring Ethiopia.
1
Exclamatory Whydah Vidua interjectaNot in ABC or Nikolaus, but included in Avibase. Presumably an error, as not near borders of neighbouring countries.
2
Barka Indigobird Vidua larvaticolaNot in Nikolaus, but it ABC and Avibase. Nikolaus gives location of 'Nigeriae' (Some authorities lump larvaticola and nigeriae, but not ABC) in Darfur and remarks "Possibly parasitic on Black-bellied Firefinch", which is not found there. V. larvaticola is parasitic on Black-faced Firefinch, which does have a record in Darfur. Is this the only criterion for inclusion?
3
Quailfinch Indigobird Vidua nigeriae See note for Barka Indigobird. Not in ABC or Avibase.
3
Jambandu Indigobird Vidua raricolaNot in Nikolaus or ABC, but in Avibase. Several websites include Sudan in range, such as IBC and IUCN. On what is this based?
3
Reichard's Seedeater Serinus reichardi Border with Ethiopia. In ABC and Avibase.
2
Common Linnet Carduelis cannabina Not in ABC, but in Avibase. Nikolaus has 2 records
3
Brown-rumped Bunting Emberiza affinis Border with Ethiopia and SS. In ABC and Avibase.
2
113 species needing discussion1. Should probably be included in ABC list unless a very good reason is given for not including it.
2. Should probably not be included in the ABC list unless additional  evidence comes to light to show why it should (such as some of Nikolaus' original data). This includes all Nikolaus records from squares that cross borders with other countries, as he included data from neighbouring countries in his analysis.
3. It is unclear why a species has been included or omitted from the list. Some discussion is needed to explain either why previous records were unacceptable or what new evidence shows that it should be included.
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